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b&b chianalea 54 - excursions points of interest attractions in scilla



Excursions, points of interest and attractions close to SCILLA Santo Stefano in Aspromonte Messina Reggio Calabria


36 Km from B&B CHIANALEA 54
Altitude: 309 mt. a.s.l.  Area San Luca, Bovalino, Bova
  Brochure PDF
Located between the towns of Bovalino and White in the province of Reggio Calabria, just over 82 km of the SS 106 Ionic, the archaeological site of Casignana was investigated tematically since 1980, when after the construction of an aqueduct in 1963, they set out the structure of a large private Roman house dating back to the first century AD Up to now, have been investigated more than 1,300 square meters of the huge structure that contains the most extensive repertoire of colorful mosaics known in Calabria. The architectural parts already brought to light are relevant to the thermal spa of the pars urbana, whose private character also follows from the particular involution of the course, the opposite of what was happening in public restrooms. Archaeologists have so far identified four phases of construction of the house. That is currently visible is the last of the fourth century AD characterized by a taste for power plants with a curved shape, which all refer to the polychrome mosaics found, except figuratively with sea thiasos dating back to the third century AD instead and consists of four female figures who ride four monstrous animals (horse, bull, tiger and lion) all with fish tail. The center of the complex layout of the domus seems to consist of a large, heated octagon, with a small mosaic floor tiles, complete with hypocaust and tubules in the clay walls, which can recognize the caldarium. The great Roman house is finished with baths and mosaics, remarkable that the fragment of a peacock, which mark the architecture. In the large rectangular room and two heated rooms you use Sectile opus, an elegant and valuable technique that uses slabs of marble for the floor and the lower part of the walls. Near the domus is a great nymph, with an apse and the reservoir tank of water. Over time the excavations at the archaeological site of Casignana have been extended to an additional 4,000 square meters, which goes far beyond the Roman house, and leading the entire affected area of the excavations about 15 hectares. The Roman house Casignana remains today the structure with the largest repertoire of policrami mosaics ever found in Calabria.


42 Km from B&B CHIANALEA 54
  Area Tropea, Vibo Valentia, Vibo Marina
The promontory of Capo Vaticano is located in front of Stromboli and the Aeolian Islands. Separate from the Gulf of St. Eufemia and Gioia Tauro and includes the coastal area stretching from the Bay of tone to the bay of Santa Maria, to the last offshoots of Monte Poro . The Venetian writer Giuseppe Berto, after traveling for a long time , he decided to stay and live in Capo Vaticano because The stretch of coast that culminates in Capo Vaticano is full of history and beauty. You could call Costabella with a hint of regret and nostalgia . It is certainly the resort with the most beautiful places on the coast , has a crystal clear sea and a highly indented coastline with beaches mostly reached by paths carved into the rock or sea . The depths of the area are a must-see for divers , they offer an unforgettable experience for the wealth of fauna and flora. Rocky bottoms are located around the rocks of Mantineo of Vadaro and Galea, while in front of the beaches of Grotticelle and tone the seabed is sandy. In rocky bottoms are different types of red algae , green and brown , while in the sandy bottom you can admire the magnificent spectacle of the colonies Posidonia Oceanica , which form the real underwater meadows . One of the interesting places to visit is the Lighthouse, with narrow streets carved into the rock , from where it can be seen on clear days , the whole southern Tyrrhenian coast of Calabria , the Aeolian Islands and the Strait of Messina. Many towers, built in these places during various dominations , are now the striking buildings to visit. The most important are : Torre Ruffa and Torre Marrana . Capo Vaticano is also known for the production of red onion , also called red onion , taste particularly sweet. Thanks to the substances contained in the ground only one cultivated in Capo Vaticano is sweet . The tasty bulb is great demand in the domestic market and internationally.


38 Km from B&B CHIANALEA 54
  Area Bovalino, San Luca, Casignana
The thermal baths of Antonimina - Locri were already known and appreciated in antiquity. The modern spa complex Antonimina - Locri was built in the late nineteenth century, and recently modernized and expanded. The spa is located in a hilly area a few kilometers from the Ionian Sea and Aspromonte , in an area of great scenic beauty , rich in archaeological sites of great interest and beauty . The thermal waters , also known as holy water Locrian are classified as thermo- , isotonic and slightly sulphurous , ideal for baths, mud baths , aerosol , mist , irrigation, insufflation and showers, beauty treatments, massages and whirlpools . Flow at 35 and are recommended for the treatment of female infertility , for diseases of the respiratory and circulatory tems. The spa also includes tennis courts , soccer, bocce courts , basketball, volleyball, horse riding , dancing and nightclubs , to combine the search for the mental well-being to divertimento.Trattamenti terapici : musculoskeletal disorders , chronic gynecological inflammatory forms and their sequelae that is infiltrative exudative chronic inflammatory diseases of the respiratory tract and ear , skin diseases How to reach us : By car : motorway A3 ( Salerno-Reggio Calabria ) exit Lamezia Terme Catanzaro lido and then follow SS 106 RC ionic direction , a few kilometers from Locri - Gerace. Train: Taranto - Reggio Calabria , Locri Station . By plane: Reggio Calabria Airport ( 99 Km ) and Lamezia Terme ( 132 Km )


15 Km from B&B CHIANALEA 54
  Area Reggio Calabria, Santo Stefano in Aspromonte, Fiumedinisi
The Fountain of Neptune is a monumental fountain of the city of Messina. This is the second work carried out in the city (in 1557) by Giovanni Angelo Montorsoli, in which the author expresses creative genius with the powerful style of Michelangelo. The original position of the Neptune Fountain in front of the Palazzata was on the docks, with their backs to the sea, symbolizing the God who blesses Neptune, the richness of its sea, the city of Messina. Today, however, the Neptune fountain was moved further north, and rotated to the front of the sea, changing the symbology. In the original position, the Fountain of Neptune was perfectly aligned with the other two works by Montorsoli, the Fountain of Orion and the lantern of St. Ranieri (the lighthouse of the port).


17 Km from B&B CHIANALEA 54
  Area Messina, Santo Stefano in Aspromonte, Fiumedinisi
Hot pepper is a plant (and fruit) belonging to the genus Capsicum (the same bell peppers) of the family Solanaceae. According to some, the Latin name Capsicum is derived from capsa, which means box, and owes its name to the particular shape of the fruit that resembles just a box with the seeds. Others, however, it derives from the greek meaning kapto bite, with clear reference to the spicy bite the tongue when you eat. history The hot pepper was used as food since ancient times. From the testimony of archeology we know that as early as 5500 BC was known in Mexico, present in those areas as a cultivated plant, and it was the only spice used by Indians of Chile and Mexico. In Europe, the chili pepper arrived with Christopher Columbus who brought the Americas with his second voyage in 1493. Then introduced to Europe by the Spanish, was an instant success, but the gains that Spain was expected by the market of the product (such as that of other oriental spices) were disappointing, because the chili is well acclimated to the old continent, spreading in all southern regions in Africa and Asia, and was thus adopted as a spice as well as that part of the population that could not afford to buy cinnamon, nutmeg etc. The fruit was so named because of the similarity in taste (though not in appearance) with pepper. The name by which he was known throughout the New World was chili and so it has remained. species The most common species of chili peppers are: - Capsicum annuum, which includes many common varieties, including red pepper common in Italy, cayenne pepper, and the Mexican jalapeno - Capsicum frutescens, which includes among others the tabasco - Capsicum chinense, which includes the habanero, by the Guinness Book of Records as the hottest chilli in the world - Capsicum pubescens, which includes the South American rocoto - Aji pepper, which includes the so-called bishop's hat Although few species of chili pepper commonly used in Italy, there are many kinds of cultivated plants and many methods to prepare the peppers. Green and red bell, for example, are the same plant, but the greens are immature. The piantapeperoncino Calabria The Capsicum annuum is a perennial shrub that, in terms of climate, is grown as an annual. The plants are in the form of high bush 40 to 80 cm (depending on the species) leaves with light green color. The flowers are white star-shaped with 5-6 petals with pale yellow stamens. The peppers can be grown on a balcony, and is sown to February, while the fruit can be harvested in summer and autumn. Should be used immediately after harvest so that they do not lose their property, but they can also preserve oil or powder (after being dried in the sun). spiciness The main architect of the substance spiciness is the alkaloid capsaicin (8-methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamide or C18H27NO3), together with 4 other related compounds, collectively called capsaicinoids. Capsacinoide Each has a different effect in the mouth, and a change in the proportions of these substances determines the different sensations produced by different varieties, as well as to their content. Capsaicin causes pain and inflammation if consumed in excess, and can even burn your skin if in contact with high concentrations (habanero chilies, for example, are collected with gloves). It is also the main ingredient in pepper spray, used as a non-lethal weapon The hotness of the chillies is measured empirically by the Scoville scale, in degrees from 0 to 10, and quantitatively in Scoville units, based in ppm weight / weight of capsaicin and diidrocapsaicina. The sweet peppers have zero Scoville units, for example, the jalapenos are about 3,000-6,000 Scoville, while the habanero arrive at 300,000 Scoville units. The record for the highest number of Scoville units in a chili pepper was assigned by Guinness Book of Records to 'Red Savina Habanero, measuring 577,000 units. But India came the news of a chili pepper called Naga jolokia should get to 855,000 Scoville units, even though they lack independent verification. The Pure capsaicin is about 16 million units. One of the best ways to relieve the burning sensation is to drink milk, eat yogurt or any dairy product. A substance found in dairy products known as casein acts as a detergent and remove capsaicin from nerve receptors. Capsaicin dissolves very well in fats and alcohol, and also fatty foods or alcoholic beverages help to remove the sensation of pain. At high concentrations, as nell'habanero Red Savina or various extracts, the most effective way is to use ice as an anesthetic.


19 Km from B&B CHIANALEA 54
  Area Messina, Santo Stefano in Aspromonte, Fiumedinisi
Reggio di Calabria, commonly known as Reggio Calabria or Reggio simply, in the South and before the unification of Italy, is an Italian town of 180728 inhabitants, capital of the province. It is the first town in the region in terms of population and the second surface. Unique City metropolitan rank in the region, being one of the 14 Italian metropolitan cities, the leader of an agglomeration of more than 260,000 inhabitants, is the largest functional pole of a polycentric metropolitan area has about 400,000 inhabitants and is part of the extensive and populous conurbation Sicilian and Calabrian Arc called Etna. There are strong historical, cultural and economic relations with the neighbor across the city of Messina. Reggio, along with Naples and Taranto, is home to one of the most important archaeological museums dedicated to Ancient Greece (which houses the famous Riace bronzes, rare example of Greek bronze sculpture, which became one of the symbols of the city), two young universities (the Mediterranean and Dante Alighieri) and the Regional Council of Calabria. It is the first city in the region despite its antiquity and ancient foundation - was an important and thriving colony of Magna Graecia - shows a modern urban layout, due to the catastrophic earthquake that December 28, 1908 destroyed most of the town. Its urban tem, forced to the east by the Strait of Messina and crowned from behind by the foothills of the Apennines, is one of the main economic and regional service but also one of the highest concentrations of nodes and equipment for transport and logistics natural structure the region to the southern coasts of the Mediterranean. The old town, mainly consisting of palaces lines liberty, has a linear development along the Calabrian coast of the strait with parallel streets to the waterfront dotted with magnolias, palms and rare or exotic


41 Km from B&B CHIANALEA 54
  Area San Luca, Casignana, Antonimina
One of the most picturesque beaches of the Ionian Reggino is to Bovalino, equipped tourist center and is easily accessible once they arrive in Reggio Calabria through the Jonica. Bovalino Navy has for years now a destination for tourists from various parts of Italy, but still resists the lure of mass tourism. Not that there are not beautiful scenery or equipment for adequate accommodation - as still happens in some places in Calabria - but it is a kind of natural ion of visitors: those looking for crowded beaches and rich facilities for guest's convenience, perhaps with animation, already has his goals in Calabria. Those who choose Bovalino, however, prefer the beautiful sea - a deep blue and the admirable transparency - and the white beaches that Calabria has to offer with citrus framed by delicate colors and intense perfumes. For some years there are bathing establishments with the beaches and private beaches. Most of the coast of Bovalino, however, is still free, ideal for those who love a place that knows how to provide entertainment but also an opportunity to find a quiet corner.


17 Km from B&B CHIANALEA 54
Altitude: 25 mt. a.s.l.  Area Messina, Santo Stefano in Aspromonte, Fiumedinisi

The Bronzi di Riace (Italian for Riace bronzes) are two famous full-size Greek bronzes of nude bearded warriors, about 460&430 BCE and currently housed by the Museo Nazionale della Magna Grecia in Reggio Calabria, Italy. The Riace Warriors are respectively termed A and B, where Riace Warrior A is thought to be a depiction of a younger man than that of Riace Warrior B. They were found by Stefano Mariottini, a chemist from Rome, Italy on a scuba diving vacation at Monasterace, on August 16, 1972, perhaps at the site of a shipwreck, off the coast of Riace, near Reggio Calabria. They are major additions to the surviving examples of ancient Greek sculpture (most Greek sculpture is known through later Roman copies in marble). The statues' eyes are inlaid with bone and glass, while the teeth are in silver and lips and nipples are in copper. Formerly they held spears and shields.


16 Km from B&B CHIANALEA 54
Altitude: 18 mt. a.s.l.  Area Reggio Calabria, Santo Stefano in Aspromonte, Fiumedinisi
  Brochure PDF
The name of the extra virgin olive oil Valdemone PDO is reserved for the oil produced under the conditions defined in the designated area of the province of Messina, except the area of Floresta, Moio Alcantara and Malvern. For the production of extra virgin olive oil Valdemone PDO are used jointly or separately drupes produced from the following varieties considered major: Santagatese, Ogliarola Messina, Petite, Olivo Mandanici or Calabrese, Nocellara Messina, Ottobratica, Brandofino, Verdelho and S . Benedict variously at least 70% and other cultivars, including Cerasuola, Biancolilla, Nocellara Belice, Tonda Iblea, Nocellara Etna for the remaining 30%. The harvesting operation must be carried out in the period from October until January, with a maximum production of olives per hectare must not exceed 60 quintals in traditional tems, and 100 quintals per hectare in intensive tems. The maximum yield in olive oil may not exceed 20% except Ogliarola, Messina and Santagatese that can reach 25%. Olive oil Valdemone PDO shows an appearance clear to slightly hazy, a green color with shades from yellow to yellow oil, a medium-strong fruity taste reminiscent of ripe olives, a medium sweet aftertaste, sometimes slightly bitter, with hints of fresh or dried fruit, ripe and wild herbs. The extra virgin olive oil Valdemone PDO must be marketed in containers or bottles of not more than 5 liters. The label must bear the name of the Protected Designation of Origin Mount Etna and also must always be indicated the year of production of the olives from which the oil is obtained.


Loc. BOVALINO - CALABRIA  Navigatore
41 Km from B&B CHIANALEA 54
  Area San Luca, Casignana, Antonimina
Bovalino overlooks the Ionian coast and is one of the many landmarks of the tourists who choose Calabria. Remarkable development of the beach. In addition there is Bovalino Bovalino Superiore, at a height of about 150 meters. Bovalino Superior contains the castle built by Count Roger de Hauteville said Norman after the Norman conquest of southern Italy (1059); was once a majestic royal castle for the administration of the territory and was given to the family Conclubet, gentlemen d'Arena, Stilo and Gerace. The first lord was Fulcone Ruffo, these seguirno: Caracciolo, De Pol, Centelles, Pignatelli, Gagliardi, Marullo, Galeota, Loffredo, Orsini, Vitale, Del Negro, Spinelli, Caracciolo, and finally the Pescara Diano which kept up the feud the abolition of feudalism (1806). Today the castle remains only as a witness to some abandoned ruin.


11 Km from B&B CHIANALEA 54
Altitude: 864 mt. a.s.l.  Area Reggio Calabria, Messina, Bova
Santo Stefano in Aspromonte is a nice mountain village perched on a rocky outcrop of the broad stream of Gaul, on the Tyrrhenian side of the harsh mountainous province of Reggio Calabria. The territory, a distinctly tourist vocation, is particularly interesting from the point of view of landscape and environment, both at lower altitudes, predominantly rural, both at the higher ones, the most populated and particularly suited to the summer and winter holidays. The vegetation consists mainly of olive trees and chestnut trees, up to a thousand meters above sea level, above which prevail beech, pine and fir trees. At an altitude of 1300 meters there is a winter and summer resort of Gambarie, part of the municipality of Santo Stefano. The country shows the typical features of the mountain villages: neat and clean streets, many ladders, crisp air, wood sheds. The old town is full of interesting corners: steep steps, noble buildings well preserved, features fountains, terraced houses built and narrow alleys from which you can admire landscapes of great charm. The town, which lies in the area of Aspromonte National Park is renowned for its natural beauty and is visited by many tourists throughout the year. In Santo Stefano in Aspromonte you can also visit the remains of the ancient abbey of St. Basilian John and Castaneto in the cave of S. Sylvester. The center is renowned for the production of oil, grains and fruits, among its dense forests, you can finally pick up, in autumn, excellent mushrooms and tasty chestnuts.


41 Km from B&B CHIANALEA 54
  Area Bova, Casignana, San Luca
The Beach of Bova Marina, located about 45 km from Reggio Calabria, is easily accessible along the SS 106 Ionian. It is a beautiful pebble beach clear mixed with sand, bathed by a beautiful crystal clear sea, thanks to the extraordinary transparency of a gravelly bottoms. The promontory of San Pasquale, near Bova Marina, makes the area even more attractive. Two sharp indentations carved into the rock close and reopen the spectacle of the sea and the landscape in the background is dominated by Bova Superiore, the capital of the perfect Greece Calabria, that even 14 kilometers away stands for the majesty of his medieval castle.


41 Km from B&B CHIANALEA 54
  Area Bova, Casignana, San Luca
Bova Marina was founded by Monsignor Dalmatius D'Andrea, bishop of Reggio-Bova, when in 1870, bought by the Royal Property, a strip of land Siderone coasting the river and in the middle of the deserted countryside. D'Andrea divided the land acquired by the state, and gave it to the peasants who wanted to get down the mountain, forming a small conurbation. Bova Marina, located on ancient Jewish settlements, Byzantine and grecanici, whose remains are still visible in surrounding areas. In 1908, a Royal Decree was d an independent municipality. In those same years, the railway came. Since the early years of its history, Bova Marina was an attractive business: every month held a big and important trade show of livestock and products made by artisans. During the Second World War Bova Marina was heavily bombed by the Americans in search of Germans fleeing to the mountains. In the postwar period, with the flood that struck the area Bovesia many, especially the residents of Old Roghudi, Bova and other centers in the area, they left their countries and came down to settle in Bova Marina, which saw a significant population increase. In the sixties, was placed on the promontory of Capo San Giovanni d'Avalos, the statue of Our Lady of the Sea, by the sculptor Celestino Petrone (which counts among his works the high altar of the Church of Santa Maria delle Grazie in San Giovanni Rotondo) statue that is highly revered by the people. In 2008, in Bova Marina marks the centenary of the declaration of Common autonomo.Di particular importance, because of its rarity, it is a Jewish settlement, located in the valley of San Pasquale, where there are the remains of an ancient synagogue with a mosaic important ( fourth century AD). In the same area found a large Roman structure (I-IV century AD) and the Byzantine church of the Panagia (called the All-Holy). In places Apa'mbelo, on a hill accessible only by foot, insist the perimeter walls and the apse of the church, which is also the Byzantine St. Niceto the tenth century, with the remains of the Bronze Age and medieval monastic houses. In more recent times, from the Norman Conquest to the front (X-XII century AD), the most important center of the territory became Bova - Chora, perched on a massive cliff 900 meters above sea level, from which the current town in the Navy then again originated. The oldest part of Bova Marina, situated around the present village street, was developed in the nineteenth century, when the Bishop. Dalmazio D'Andrea bought by the state of the land in the vicinity of the River Siderone and granted them free of charge to farmers who agreed to move there.


38 Km from B&B CHIANALEA 54
  Area Castelmola, Messina, Taormina
This protected area reserve many surprises impassioned naturalist: beautiful specimens of heather, at the foot of Monte Scuderi, a counterpoint to the woods of all species of oak known in Sicily, which occupy the valleys and other low areas of the reserve. Then, the rivers: real laboratories geological outdoors where myriads of pebbles of different mineral tell the story of the bowels of the earth and the physical nature of Peloritans.


34 Km from B&B CHIANALEA 54
Altitude: 247 mt. a.s.l.  Area Bovalino, Casignana, Antonimina
Lake Constantine, also known as Lake Oleander was formed in 1973 during a flood . After days of heavy rain , January 1, 1973 , a landslide of huge dimensions spilled on the bed of the stream Bonamico , in a stretch of the area between Wrists and St. Luke , settling perfectly from one bank to another. It was formed as a natural dam and in the space of a few days, a huge amount of water and mud filled the reservoir. The lake was officially named Lake Constantine , named after the ancient monastery of St. Constantine the tenth century. those that stood in the vicinity . It grows to about 2.4 km in length on the river bed , for a total perimeter of approximately 5 km and a maximum depth of about 18 meters. The depth decreases from year to year because of the alluvial deposit carried by the waters of the stream that flows into the lake by raising the bottom. Over time the lake will , therefore, destined to disappear , giving way to an expanse of sand. Plant Deion : The lake area is full of oleanders and has seen the proliferation of dense vegetation on the banks and a purely lacustrine fauna , facilitated settlement in its clear waters . How to reach us : From the SS 106 exit to St. Luke. From here you climb and then descend towards the F.ra Buonamico and follow the dirt road that runs alongside . You leave the car in a clearing and continue on foot following the course of the Fiumara . The path is quite easy but it is better to walk early in the morning to avoid the hottest hours of the day , given the few shady shelters .


BOVA  Apri
Loc. BOVA - CALABRIA  Navigatore
34 Km from B&B CHIANALEA 54
Altitude: 772 mt. a.s.l.  Area Bova Marina, Casignana, San Luca
The town of Bova (in greek Vu'a) has ancient origins. According to legend, an Armenian queen would have led his people on Mount Vu'a, whose name appears in a clear reference to the presence of the ox, in a land that is used for the grazing of cattle. Things to see From Bova, in a panoramic position 850 meters above sea level, it is possible to embrace with his eyes the whole coast. The village is one of the most important centers of Hellenistic island province of Reggio Calabria and has a long history of which there are many traces in the town. Ancient bishopric, has a cathedral whose original building dates back to the early centuries AD, certainly existed in the fifth, as documented by the signing of Lorenzo Bishop of Bova. Dedicated to Our Lady of the Presentation or Isodi'a, and the result of successive reconstructions and renovations, has a nave and two aisles of a basilica. The most notable works are the Chapel of the Sacrament, built by Sicilian craftsmen specialized in the manufacture of colored marbles inlaid, and the statue of the Madonna Isodi'a and Child, attributed to Rinaldo Bonanno (1584), placed on a marble bench that reproduces the coat of arms of Bova. The excavations have brought to light numerous tombs and the ancient Norman church. The Norman Castle (X-XI century), in ruins, stands on top of a rocky spur. The Norman Tower (XI) was guarding one of the four doors that allowed access to the city. The Church of St. Leo (XVII) has a single nave with side chapels, precious nineteenth-century stucco walls and a sumptuous high altar of the Baroque style polychrome niche in which is a statue of St. Leo the white marble, the work of Peter Bernini (1582). The saint holds an ax in his left hand resting on a route and rump octagonal marble on which is shown - even here - the coat of arms with the ox. Other baroque splendor in the Chapel of the Relics (1722). The Church of the Carmine (XVII) is a pretty chapel belonged to the family Mesiani. The main facade in late-Renaissance style is defined by tall pilasters supporting a cornice with triangular pediments. The stone portal built by local craftsmen place in line to the facade is surmounted by the coat of arms of the family of marble Mesiani. Inside is a fine marble altar.



Calabria is on the tip of the boot, the extreme south of Italy, lapped by the splendid crystal blue Ionian and Tyrrhenian Seas and separated from Sicily by the Strait of Messina. The warm climate, the beautiful colours of the sea, rocky coasts alternated to sandy beaches, the wild and mysterious nature, the strong and genuine flavours of local food and the vestiges of its ancient origins make Calabria a unique place to admire both in winter and summer. Any wish can be fulfilled. Those who love nature, its scents and mysteries, can explore the Calabrian hinterland, discovering pure and unpolluted sceneries, where huge green belts alternate with blue lakes and falls. On the other hand, those who prefer basking in the warm rays of the sun and dive into a crystal-clear sea can choose from the many charming towns along the long Tyrrhenian and Ionian coasts. Instead those who prefer to learn about the past of this region, Calabria, the cradle of Magna Graecia and land of ancient settlements, offers a wide choice of churches, monasteries, castles, palaces and places where age-long traditions still survive. The provinces of Calabria are: Catanzaro (regional capital), Reggio Calabria, Cosenza, Crotone and Vibo Valentia.